14Sep 2021 by
answer the following questions
Mining is a huge industry in Australia, (as shown in the map below) and around the world. Australia has significant reserves of minerals and resources including iron ore, nickel, uranium, aluminium, copper, silver, opals, zinc, coal and natural gas. These are mined in sites around the country and in many cases, exported to other countries, contributing significantly to the economy. The construction and operation of a mining site is temporary, lasting only as long as the resource to be mined is available and its extraction and use is still profitable. However, the impact of a mine on an ecosystem can be long lasting as it inevitably results in major habitat changes for the flora and fauna of the area. What impact does mining have on the biodiversity of an ecosystem and explain using reference to a specific example, how the damaged ecosystem can be restored after mining. (5 marks)
Pollen grains are produced by flowering plants and are enclosed in tough outer walls. The shape and surface of the outer wall can be used to identify the plant species that has produced the pollen grain. Explain why are pollen grains useful in understanding changes to Australia’s climate over time? (2 marks)
Explain two selection pressures that affect the evolution of stromatolites. (2 marks)
Provide TWO reasons as to why Aboriginal rock paintings are valuable resources for scientists? (2 marks)
Sea anemones are carnivores with a pedal disc that act as an adhesive foot. The tentacles around its mouth catch prey. How does the pedal disc affect distribution? (1 Mark)
Suggest TWO abiotic factors that would influence the distribution of sea anemones on this rock platform. (2 Mark)
An extinction event is rapid and widespread decrease in the biodiversity on earth. Describe the recent extinction of Australian Megafauna and THREE theories put forward by scientists to explain this extinction event. (5 Marks)
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