cortisol and alcoholism

The references are provided. 

Key words for my final paper: cortisol, alcoholism, HPA axis, Gut-Brain axis, amygdala, motivational rewards system 

Blaine, Nautiyal, N., Hart, R., Guarnaccia, J., & Sinha, R. (2019). Craving, cortisol and behavioral alcohol motivation responses to stress and alcohol cue contexts and discrete cues in binge and nonbinge drinkers. Addiction Biology, 24(5), 10961108. https://doi.org/10.1111/adb.12665 

The article says that higher cortisol responses a significant motivational craving to alcohol. 

Blaine, Seo, D., & Sinha, R. (2017). Binge-heavy alcohol alters cortisol and subjective craving: Impact on compulsive alcohol motivation and intake. Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.), 60, 212213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2017.02.224 

The study conducts compulsive drinking motivation is initiated by stress hormones. 

Lovallo. (2006). Cortisol secretion patterns in addiction and addiction risk. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 59(3), 195202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.10.007 

This article introduces the relationship between the HPA axis and alcoholism on the brain motivation system. 

Montoya, Bos, P. A., Terburg, D., Rosenberger, L. A., & van Honk, J. (2014). Cortisol administration induces global down-regulation of the brains reward circuitry. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 47, 3142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.04.022 

The article states the activity in the basolateral amygdala is decreased by CRT which negatively impacts brain reward system. 

Morris, Voon, V., & Leggio, L. (2018). Stress, Motivation, and the GutBrain Axis: A Focus on the Ghrelin System and Alcohol Use Disorder. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 42(8), 13781389. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.13781 

This article describes how gherlin induces the relationship between the central reward motivation pathway and cortisol-induced alcoholism. 

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