cortisol and alcoholism

The references are provided. 

Key words for my final paper: cortisol, alcoholism, HPA axis, Gut-Brain axis, amygdala, motivational rewards system 

Blaine, Nautiyal, N., Hart, R., Guarnaccia, J., & Sinha, R. (2019). Craving, cortisol and behavioral alcohol motivation responses to stress and alcohol cue contexts and discrete cues in binge and nonbinge drinkers. Addiction Biology, 24(5), 10961108. 

The article says that higher cortisol responses a significant motivational craving to alcohol. 

Blaine, Seo, D., & Sinha, R. (2017). Binge-heavy alcohol alters cortisol and subjective craving: Impact on compulsive alcohol motivation and intake. Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.), 60, 212213. 

The study conducts compulsive drinking motivation is initiated by stress hormones. 

Lovallo. (2006). Cortisol secretion patterns in addiction and addiction risk. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 59(3), 195202. 

This article introduces the relationship between the HPA axis and alcoholism on the brain motivation system. 

Montoya, Bos, P. A., Terburg, D., Rosenberger, L. A., & van Honk, J. (2014). Cortisol administration induces global down-regulation of the brains reward circuitry. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 47, 3142. 

The article states the activity in the basolateral amygdala is decreased by CRT which negatively impacts brain reward system. 

Morris, Voon, V., & Leggio, L. (2018). Stress, Motivation, and the GutBrain Axis: A Focus on the Ghrelin System and Alcohol Use Disorder. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 42(8), 13781389. 

This article describes how gherlin induces the relationship between the central reward motivation pathway and cortisol-induced alcoholism. 

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