Covid-19

Sections of the paper
I. Executive Summary:
Overview of your paper.
II. Structures for Addressing Pandemics in the U.S.:
Identify the principal federal agencies having a role in combating the virus and its effects. Include any ad hoc coordinating mechanisms, such as task forces, created to deal with the virus response. Identify the leader of each entity.
Identify the principal New York State agencies having a role combating virus and its effects.  Here also Include any ad hoc coordinating mechanisms, such as task forces, created to deal with the virus response, identifying the individual leading each agency or ad hoc group.
For New York City, identify two public, two university-affiliated and two unaffiliated non-profit hospitals in the forefront of the corona virus response.  Also identify the entities that operated field hospitals in New York City parks, convention centers, armories and docked ships. Identify any body or official coordinating the effort of all involved hospitals.
Give examples of these various organizations working in complementary ways. Then describe situations where these entities operated at cross-purposes.  Discuss whether certain fault linespermanent vs. ad hoc agencies, federal vs. state vs local government, public vs private vs non-profitwere more likely to instigate dysfunctional responses.

III. Oversight of Pandemic Response
Explain the role of federal inspectors General.  Identify the IG(s) with jurisdiction over the CDC and the National Institutes of Health.  What were the conclusions of the March 2020 HHS Inspector General report on the adequacy of Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) supplies in U.S. hospitals?  What happened to the deputy inspector general who signed off on that report? What happened to the Inspector General initially designated to oversee the expenditure of trillions of federal stimulus dollars on combating the virus and ameliorating its economic impacts. What was the position of the president with respect to oversight of the various stimulus programs by Congress, and specifically the House of Representatives? Explain how the presidents actions during the pandemic, which also included dismissing the Inspectors General for the State Department and the Intelligence Community, line up with OHara and Sainatos views on providing effective oversight?
IV. Resource Diversion during Pandemics:
Identify at least two specific instances of resource diversion associated with the corona virus response. Cases might include price gouging, hoarding of medical supplies, improper receipt of government aid by businesses and individuals, false claims for reimbursement by medical providers and insider trading by government officials. For each case, briefly describe the scheme, detail how the situation came to light, identify the actions government agencies took and give the current status of the case.  For each case, discuss the motivations of the perpetrators and organizational vulnerabilities enabling them, drawing upon factors identified by OHara and Sainato and/or by Ariely in the Predictably Irrational podcasts.
V. Culture:
The Centers for Disease Control, led by Dr. Robert Redfield as COVID 19 emerged, has long enjoyed worldwide respect for its scientific expertise (as has the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, headed by Dr. Anthony Fauci).  Nonetheless, CDCs evidence-based science has frequently been shelved, watered-down or disputed by the Trump administration, drawing criticism from medical experts outside government. How do these medical experts describe the CDCs culture and in what ways do they see it threatened by the president’s actions.  How have the presidents actions impacted the morale of CDC staffers? If not science and evidence, discuss the values Donald Trump seeks to impose on federal agencies and their employees.
VI. Institutionalization: 
The World Health Organizations (WHO) response to the corona virus outbreak has been criticized as inadequate and slow, marked by a self-serving reluctance to point fingers at member states.  Describe the structure of the World Health Organization, including its decentralized regional offices and the composition of WHOs executive board. List WHOs major funding sources and the percentage of WHOs budget each contribute. Identify two project-specific grants to WHO by non-governmental actors such as philanthropic foundations. Describe WHOs position within the United Nations, and its relationship with the International Civil Service System.  Analyze these various influences in terms of the impact on WHOs governing, financing and managing. Is WHOs recent performance, including its corona virus response, evidence that institutionalization has taken hold? Justify your conclusion.

VII. OPTIONAL EXTRA CREDIT SECTION: Normal Accidents and Viral Spread
Identify two hypotheses about how this virus jumped to humans. Discuss whether normal accident plausibly supports either hypotheses. 
Define community spread. When did U.S. public health officials announce community spread of COVID-19 had taken hold?  Why didnt U.S. public health authorities realize or react earlier? Relate the delayed reaction to the virus rapid, multi-directional spread worldwide, extremely high transmissibility, and hidden elements like asymptomatic carriers and large groups who were infected but not yet sick. Explain how the miscalculations of public health authorities could be considered a normal accident? 
How accurately did the president communicate the known extent of the COVID-19 threat to the public? Support your position with presidential quotes and tweets, and his endorsement and/or rejection of recommendations by senior public health officials. Consider the presidents decisions in light of Dorners discussion of contradictory goals, ballistic behavior, and structural knowledge (or lack thereof). 
***
Term Paper Length: Your paperexcluding charts, endnotes and bibliography–should be at least 16 pages, double-spaced, using the default margins for Microsoft Word documents and Times New Roman 12-point font.  Maximum length 24 pages, exclusive of end matter, charts and illustrations. Word count–4500 words equal 16 pages; 7000 words equal 24 pagesalso defines acceptable length. Focusing on providing all the analysis called for in the term paper template should easily produce a paper with the minimum prescribed length.
 
 Length-related behaviors that will reduce your term paper grade:
 

Racing through the last couple of modules because page 16 is fast approaching;
Adding extraneous discussion to stretch out the paper to 16 pages;
Using fonts, spacing and margins that reduce how many words can fit on a page.

 
USE APA CITATION: Your job as a researcher/reporter is to allow readers to double-check or follow-up on your case.  This requires APA citation within your text and a list of sources at the end. Not doing this reduces the quality of your paper and, consequently, its grade.

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