Nursing research

In this weeks discussion question you were asked to consider a potential problem (appropriate to your role option , ATTACHED BELOW) that you would like to investigate through nursing research. For this assignment you will review current research from your university and websites and provide a critical evaluation on that research through an annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography is a brief summary and analysis of the journal article reviewed. For more information on annotated bibliographies please visit Purdues OWL: Purdue Online Writing LabA total of two annotated bibliographies are to be submitted (not to exceed one page each). The articles must come from nursing scholarly literature and may not be older than 5 years since publication. Please note that the articles must be research based and reflect a quantitative methodology (review our reading assignments). Web pages, magazines, textbooks, and other books are not acceptable.Potential problem :  “Are active smokers at increased risk of developing heart disease oppose to non smokers?”
The Prevalence of Smokers who Develop Heart Disease
In my current role as a perioperative and cath lab registered nurse. I witness interventions done on smokers every single day. Severe cardiac mortality and morbidities are well known to be facilitated by smoking as a risk factor. Active smokers, passive smokers, and ex-smokers are all at a high risk of contracting heart diseases. As an aspiring nurse practitioner, I would advise national cessation forums that would help eliminate all smoking practices to reduce the number of deaths because of smokers’ cardiovascular heart failure (Choi et al., 2019). This discussion  will identify and explain the prevalence of smokers who develop heart diseases, article search strategies, and potential solutions to the problem.
The Problem Description
Cardiovascular disease is one of the most prevalent diseases that is caused by smoking. However, people with coronary heart disease are at increased risk of dying if they continue smoking (Carroll et al., 2017). When data is collected concerning the prevalence of smokers to contraction of heart diseases, it appears that a significant ratio of those who smoke and nonsmokers differ in a slight difference since active smokers are at the highest risk of contracting heart diseases. For example, nicotine is one of the smoking products that tend to increase the risk of experiencing implantable cardiovascular defibrillator therapy if used for a prolonged period (Kreuz et al., 2015). As a nurse practitioner, my profession does not give precise information on whether factual data exists to prove that cigarette smoking can have a dosage that can heal the diseases. For this reason, I have been influenced by the continued rate of deaths caused by cigarette smoking and the fact that there is no substantial dosage to provide proper intervention and therapy on the infections. My influence is supported by the zeal to help smokers stop smoking gradually and influence others on the effects of smoking so that the problem can end with immediate effect.
  
Article Search Strategies and Evidence of The Problem Existence
There have been different researches and surveys conducted to establish the prolonged effects of smoking on other people. For example, in a particular survey, a sample of 350 patients was obtained from the most prevalent people in New York City. Out of the 350 patients with heart disease, 70% of them were active smokers who most preferably used nicotine and other tobacco products (Shahoumian et al., 2016). This was concrete evidence showing that most heart diseases are caused by smoking. In every research conducted, the approximate results show that individuals with coronary heart disease are smokers. The distribution of smoking prevalence is high for the male gender than for the female gender.
A potential Innovative Solution to The Problem
With a significant alarming concern on the effects of smoking, I advocate for a total cessation of smoking, which can be achieved through public education in social media platforms such as WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and other forums that would reach a significant number of people. If social media is not compelling enough, education on the effects of smoking can be incorporated into the curriculum of all schools worldwide. This is because most people smoke without knowing the impact of smoking on a person’s body, especially the heart. In addition, parents should take full responsibility for advising their children on the effects of smoking since it is most prevalent among the youths.
 
References
Carroll, A. J., Carnethon, M. R., Liu, K., Jacobs Jr, D. R., Colangelo, L. A., Stewart, J. C., … & Hitsman, B. (2017). Interaction between smoking and depressive symptoms with subclinical heart disease in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Health psychology, 36(2), 101. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000425
Choi, W., Kim, S. H., Kang, S. H., Park, J. J., Yoon, C. H., Youn, T. J., & Chae, I. H. (2019). Differential impact of smoking on cardiac or non-cardiac death according to age. PloS one, 14(10), e0224486. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224486
Kreuz, J., Skowasch, D., Kamrath, P., Lorenzen, H., Tiyerili, V., Linhart, M. … & Schwab, J. O. (2015). Influence of smoking dosage and chronic obstructive lung disease on the incidence of appropriate therapies and mortality in patients with structural heart disease and an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 38(1), 71-76. https://doi.org/10.1111/pace.12497
Shahoumian TA, Phillips BR, Backus LI (2016). Cigarette Smoking, Reduction and Quit Attempts: Prevalence among Veterans with Coronary Heart Disease. http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd13.150282
 
 

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