13Sep 2021 by


Acute abdominal pain often represents as a spectrum of illnesses or diseases ranging from self-limiting (self-healing) and benign illnesses to more serious surgical emergencies. When conducting an assessment of a patient with abdominal pain, it is critical to consider some important such as history of present illness, family history of abdominal pain, aggravating factors, and medical history. The assessment of abdominal pain requires an approach that rely on the likelihood of a disease, of physical examination, patient history laboratory tests, and imaging studies (Mujagic et al., 2015). The location of the pain in the abdomen is an important starting point because it may guide on further evaluation process (Mujagic et al., 2015). For instance, manifestation of right lower quadrant pain usually suggests appendicitis. Various elements of the physical examination and patients history are helpful, for example, abdominal distension and constipation suggest bowel obstruction, while others have little value. Anorexia has insignificant predictive value for appendicitis. Imaging information are also important when conducting abdominal pain assessment.
Various professional organizations, such as the American College of Radiology and the American Nursing Association have recommended different imaging studies when assessing abdominal pain depending on the location of the pain (Mujagic et al., 2015). Ultrasonography is usually recommended for assessment of right upper quadrant pain while computed tomography (CT) scanning is an appropriate imaging technique during assessment of right and left lower quadrant GI pain (Mujagic et al., 2015). Other significant information to consider during the assessment of the abdominal pain is prioritizing on special populations like women, particularly those higher risks of genitourinary disease that can cause abdominal pain and the senior adults who may present with atypical symptoms of disease.
When assessing a patient with an abdominal pain, I will conduct an examination of the supraclavicular and inguinal lymph nodes. In the examination process, I will conduct an assessment to identify presence of scars, particularly in the umbilicus for the laparoscopy scars. The inspection will also involve identification of distension, prominent veins, local swellings, skin lesions, asymmetrical movement, pulsation, and visible peristalsis. In this case, it is recommended to exclude lesions that are located on the abdominal wall.
Auscultation of the abdomen is also performed to identify any abnormal or altered bowel sounds, rubs, or vascular bruits (Mujagic et al., 2015). Normal peristalsis usually creates bowel sounds that can be absent or altered in case of a disease. Palpation is the last approach that can be utilized when assessing the masses in the abdomen. Warm hands should always be used in the palpation of the abdomen. It is important to check for any rebound tenderness, rigidity, and guarding in these abdominal masses. Palpating a mass in the abdomen requires the use of appropriate techniques. I ensured that the patient is positioned in a supine manner with the head and the knees supported. I recorded the patients history before performing a thorough inspection and auscultation before palpating the masses in the abdomen.
Osteoarthritis is a musculoskeletal condition that results when the protective cartilage responsible for cushioning the ends of the bones wears out over time (Anderson et al., 2018). Osteoarthritis is considered as the most common form of arthritis. Due to its high incidence rates, osteoarthritis is a one of the leading musculoskeletal condition affecting millions of people worldwide. Although osteoarthritis can damage any joint, the disorder most commonly affects joints in the hands, spine, knees, and hips.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder or disease that can cause joint pain and damage throughout the body (Anderson et al., 2018). RA usually affects the joints, resulting to limited mobility (Anderson et al., 2018). The main similarity between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis is that the two conditions involves the joints. The main difference is that rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder is osteoarthritis is not.

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