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CriminologyCrime Life HistoryCriminology aspects had the assistance of the secret childhood society in comprehension, regulation, and crime reduction. It is crucial to monitor criminals’ mindset regarding their reasons for committing the crime and the particular motivating factors and ultimately guiding the resources allocation for curtailing efforts (Carrington et al., 2018). An ideal consideration in an application is the victims’ requirements. The justice system of historical childhood days had the emergence of other issues such as the desire to have one’s voice heard during criminal trials. It should be in consideration that additional requirements should occur after this phase is complete.
In any contact with the enforcement or prosecuting officers, legal experts, court personnel, and those participating in the justice process, survivors should carefully handle courtesy and respect. The policies and correspondence should be victim-centered, and those dealing with victims should behave with sensitivity and understanding towards their particular circumstances. The life history approach suggests that murder and attack are examples of interpersonal and inter non-political crime (Prieur, 2018). In most cases, social scientists prefer a particular explanation: Disparities in characteristics, such as total or relative deprivation and income inequalities, influence national violent crime trends.
During childhood, at the state level, crime levels and the incidence of muggings and assaults on civilians characterize a powerful single violent activity element. There were predictive features of several possible indicators of this element as well as national violent crime separately. Just two historical variables, paternal absenteeism, and teenage fertility could independently forecast the complex component (Barmaki, 2019). Respectful care was especially critical for disadvantaged victims, such as infants, gender-based abuse victims, victims of domestic abuse, the elderly, and disabled people. It’s
also vital that indirect victims, such as family members, are handled with dignity. All practitioners who came into touch with victims daily had to have primary education. Such measures are instrumental in the development of the requisite efforts for criminology control. The attribution of the hiking criminal cases is ostensibly for the rising unemployment cases. It would thus avail an ideal starting point for curbing the menace.
Crime Leading to Arrest
The specific crime is forgery prompting the arrest was a fraud. It was entailing as the application of a false text, signature, or other reproduction of a valuable item with the intent of deceiving another person. The crime often leads to the individual charged with burglary. Contracts, identity cards, and legal licenses are also examples of records that can be forged (Chan & Gibbs, 2019). Forgery can be present to commit theft or robbery in most jurisdictions. Forged documents include legal arrangements, historical records, art pieces, diplomas, licenses, credentials, and identity cards. Currency and retail products may also alter, but counterfeiting is the most common term for this felony. Most jurisdictions may not require good forgery lest it is performed with the motive to cheat or to commit an alleged theft or robbery. Historically, governments have viewed identity fraud as forgery, impersonation, or deception theft. Although several jurisdictions continue to use these provisions to prosecute data fraud, the majority of states have also passed strict identity theft and cyber-crime legislation. Many states have laws making it illegal to utilize another person’s identification details, whether confidential or monetary.
The forgery period started with a completely blank sheet of paper, a simple unfinished tool with blanks that needed to
be through filling, or a complete genuine instrument that could be in alteration. The most common forging method is to create fake writing and sign it with someone else’s signature or make a material change to an actual report with someone else’s signature. Signing another’s signature, filling in blanks, or altering legitimate writing in the sincere, if the misguided, assumption that such behavior is permitted is not a forgery (Official Criminology, 2020). It might be an indication that some deception may be progressing. If the fake text tricks no one, there is counterfeit if any motive exists.
Theories Applicable to Fraud
It is necessary to consider that fraud happens to deter it. Regrettably, there is no conclusive explanation for why individuals commit fraud. Every person is distinct, and as a result, each has a different genetic history and set of personal interactions. As a result, in identical circumstances, people behave differently. There is a need to recognize and consider recurrent fraud signs to take preventative measures (Prieur, 2018). The earlier the scam is stopped, the fewer funds will be under defrauding. Some essential fraud theories are necessary to the development of preventive measures. Two such applicable approaches encompass social control and cognitive theory.
The Theory on Social Control
People’s interactions, commitments, principles, norms, and convictions, according to societal regulation, motivate them not to violate the rule. Individuals can willingly curb their tendency to perform deviant actions if moral norms are in rationalization and connected to and invested in their larger group. There are four methods of regulation, as with the proponents of the theory. Direct control encompasses parents, relatives, and authority officials employing direct influence to intimidate or apply
discipline for wrongful conduct and reward obedience (Official Criminology, 2020). Internal control denotes a young person’s conscience or superego’s ability to keep them from engaging in delinquent behavior. The control approach via satisfaction of needs depicts an individual accomplishing their objectives until there is no justification for criminality.
According to the provisions in cognitive theory, there is a need to focus on variables that affect neural activity to consider human decision-making mechanisms, including criminal decisions, for instance, time, mental capability, and motives. Cognition refers to a person’s ability to absorb new knowledge quickly, memorize it, and comprehend it. As a result, theoretical explanations of criminal conduct are in classification as neurological theories of criminality. It is critical to understand that several causes aim to justify illegal activity (Chan & Gibbs, 2019). Furthermore, there is a need to investigate how people use conceptual frameworks to perceive and arrange the content and the role of emotions mentally. Criminal behavior is a flaw in moral judgment, behavioral patterns, or emotional growth of cognitive models of crime. Cognitive hypotheses also help us comprehend how a person’s disposition and intellect level are related to delinquency. Such views are general in scope, but they mainly focus on the criminality factors.
Criminal Theories and ExamplesSocial Control
The individual tended to weigh the risks and rewards of crime before taking action. With authority to rob people of life, liberty, and land, the state exacts the highest violence costs. Arguably, the existence of penal law’s substance is uncontroversial. Such widespread agreement that using coercion and deception for personal gain is unethical. Option and consensus are in acceptance through social management theory. The criminal had no compelling
forces to commit immoral offenses through unique needs or wishes. In general, informal social regulation regulates conduct in the bank fraudulent deals and forgery of signatures that deviate from relaxed norms. Formal social control is to regulate behavior that differs from traditional models (Barmaki, 2019). There is the inability to break everyday standards if there is consideration of breaking the criminality because of the fraught of receiving unwanted feedback from others. In the U. S., formal social regulation involves the justice system (officers, lawyers, judges, correctional officials) and the various municipal, state, and federal administrative bodies that make up the regulatory system for corporations.
Fraud detection was by watching for potential problems and other signs of deception. The efficiency of such approaches was a question by internal audit and psychological research. Developing a novel cognitive perspective to recognize performance and loss in identifying fraudulent financial reporting was the central remedying dimension. Auditors should apply methodologies to classify management targets perceived to have significant amounts of variation and assess the cues associated with management meeting its goals (Carrington et al., 2018). It is also in the determination of whether there were prevailing fraud risks. There was no direct evidence that compelling auditors to apply the approach had an improvement on planning decisions.
Conclusively, it is critical to analyze the context in which fraud develops and the personal and situational causes that may lead to its proliferation to fight it successfully. Theoretical criminology provides insights into the causes of fraudulent activities and other crimes. Fraud investigators must consider what motivates criminals and the rationalization dimensions of their conduct.
ReferencesBarmaki, R. (2019). On the Origin of Labeling Theory in Criminology:
Frank Tannenbaum and the Chicago School of Sociology. Deviant Behavior, 40(2), 256-271. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01639625.2017.1420491
Carrington, K., Hogg, R., Scott, J., & Sozzo, M. (2018). Criminology, southern theory and cognitive justice. In The Palgrave handbook of criminology and the global south (pp. 3-17). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322434094_Criminology_Southern_Theory_and_Cognitive_Justice
Chan, F., & Gibbs, C. (2019). Integrated Theories of WhiteCollar and Corporate Crime. The Handbook of WhiteCollar Crime, 191-207. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781118775004.ch13
Official Criminology. (2020). Differential Association Theory | Differential Association Theory Criminology | Official Criminology [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0IaGzm6Hzvc
Prieur, A. (2018). Towards a criminology of structurally conditioned emotions: Combining Bourdieus field theory and cultural criminology. European Journal of Criminology, 15(3), 344-363. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1477370817737242
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