Question 1In California there has been land subsidence due to over pumping of the ground water. According to the ground water movie, how much subsidence occurred in the Central Valley of California in the San Joaquin Valley from 1925 to 1977.10 ft or 3m60 ft or 18m200 ft or 61 m30 ft or 9mQuestion 2In the ground water movie, Mr. William Cunningham, talks about the irrigation distribution and he points at two things, please choose the point that he made.1. Western 17 states use much more groundwater for irrigation as compared to eastern 31 states; 2. Western 31 states have decreased their ground water uses (for irrigation) significantly over the last 6 decades (1960 -2000).1. Western 17 states use much less groundwater for irrigation as compared to eastern 31 states.; 2. Western States are using increasingly more water every year (1960 -2000).1. Western 17 states use much less groundwater for irrigation as compared to eastern 31 states.; 2. Western 31 states have decreased their ground water uses (for irrigation) significantly over the last 6 decades (1960 -2000).1. Western 17 states use much more groundwater for irrigation as compared to eastern 31 states.; 2. Western States are using increasingly more water every year (1960 -2000).Question 3What is true about porosity? Choose all correct answers, more than one answers are correct.percentage of open space within an unconsolidated sediment or a rockConsolidation and cementation during the process of lithification of unconsolidated sediments into sedimentary rocks enhances primary porosityUnconsolidated sediments tend to have lower porosity than consolidated ones because they have no cement, and most have not been strongly compressedIt is expressed as a percentage calculated from the volume of open space in a rock compared with the total volume of rock.Question 4What approximate percentage of the total amount of water on planet Earth is fresh (not salty)?10%17%3%1%Question 5Which of these are top three water aquifers in the USA?Note: this question is based on the Groundwater movie.Ogallala Aquifer- High Plains aquiferRio Grande aquifer systemCentral Valley aquifer system- CaliforniaEdward-Trinity AquiferMississippi River Valley alluvial aquiferQuestion 6US population has increased from (around)150 million in 1950 to 300 million in year 2010. As a nation, US has ________________ its ground water usage in the last decade years (from year 2000 to 2010).Note: this question is based on the Groundwater movie.increased significantlydecreased slightlydecreased catastrophicallyincreased slightlyQuestion 7According to the ground water movie, around 50 % of the river(stream) water comes from the ground water. In the movies example of two streams on B in North Dakota the stream flow is 90% made of run off and only 10% ground water. Whereas in case of C., an stream in Michigan, has 90 % groundwater and 10 % run off water contribution. What kind of rocks are present in these two aquifers?B is mostly limestone which are fine grained rocks and do not allow the movement of water;C. is mostly shale and gypsum, which are coarse grained rocks with high permeability and allow the movement of water.B is mostly silt and clay, which are fine grained rocks and do not allow the movement of water; and C. is mostly sand and gravel, which are coarse grained rocks with high permeability and allow the movement of water.B is mostly oil rich shale and C is mostly silty limestone.B. is mostly pebbles and gravel, which are coarse grained rocks with high permeability and allow the movement of water.; and C is mostly dolostone and limestone, which are fine grained rocks and do not allow the movement of water;Question 8Ground water is seeping into a gaining stream. A water well is drilled next to the stream.Below are some events,A. Initially the water comes from the aquifer storage, and not from the stream. But, significant amount of ground water is seeping into the stream.B. At later time, the water table is moved down at the location of the water well and slightly less water is coming to the pump, and very small amount of water is seeping into the stream.C. At event later stage, more water flows into the stream and the water well does not produce water anymore.D. After longer time, if the pumping is high enough, the flows from the stream into the ground water system and the water well produces both the aquifer water and stream water.Which one of these are possible results of the interaction of stream and the water well?Note: this question is based on the Groundwater movie.A, B, C and DA, B and DA and DB and C.Question 9According to the USGS five year report in 2010, which these were the top three states using ground water for public supply (1,000 million gallons of water per day)? Choose all three correct answers.Note: this question is based on the Groundwater movie.ArkansasCaliforniaWashingtonTexasMontanaFloridaQuestion 10In case of a gaining stream, __________?__________.Note: this question is based on the Groundwater movie.the watertable is above the stream water level and groundwater seeps into the stream.the water seeps from the stream to aquifer and raises the water table.gains the velocity and amount of sediments upstream.flows through Gaines county TexasQuestion 11The difference between “deserts” and “steppes” is _______________?deserts are found in Both North and South America, steppes are found in Africa and Asiadeserts contain mostly sand, steppes are made up of gravel and rocksdeserts are arid (rain < 10inch), steppes are semiarid(rain 10-20inch)deserts have rain only in the summer, steppes have rain mostly in the winterQuestion 12The Great Basin desert is an example of a ___________________?desert in Africarain shadow desertlow latitude desert in the Tropic of Cancerlow latitude desert in the Tropic of CapricornQuestion 13Alluvial fans form where stream gradients change from steep to flat. This happens when an stream flows from a steep mountain to a flat land.When the sediment-rich water loses energy at the foot of the mountains, it forms a ____________.meandering streamplaya lakebraided streambajadaQuestion 14Sand is carried by the wind as _________________________?suspended loaddissolved loadbedloadall of the other answersQuestion 15Wind abrasion produces ______________________.sand dunes and blowoutsblowouts and desert pavementventifactssand dunes and ventifactsQuestion 16Deserts are defined as _______________________?areas with sand dunesareas with very little rainfallareas with minimal rainfall and high evaporation ratesareas with vulturesQuestion 17A dry lake bed in the desert is called a ________________?mirageplayabajadaalluvial fanQuestion 18Bajadas form from coalesced _______________________?drainage basinssinkholesplayasalluvial fansQuestion 19The Sahara desert is an example of a ________________________?desert in North Americarain shadow desertlow latitude desert in the Tropic of Cancerlow latitude desert in the Tropic of CapricornQuestion 20The major erosive agent in deserts is ____________?windrunning waterherds of grazing animalstornadoesQuestion 21Star dunes formonly in north American desertswhen two different types of dunes grow together due to variation in wind flow and direction.where the wind direction is always from the northwhere the wind direction is perpendicular to the orientation of the duneswhen there is a strong onshore wind, the sand supply is abundant and there is lots of vegetation
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